In order for the plans to be sustainable and adaptable, participation of all stakeholders is very essential in all the steps in the planning process. As an example, we take the Rationalized Local Planning System in the Philippines as an example. This is a parallel process that covers two different but complementing plans: the comprehensive land use plan (CLUP) and comprehensive development plan (CDP). The difference between the two is that the first is the basis for the zoning ordinance, and the latter is the basis for the investment programming of the city.
The preparation of both plans may be divided into four (4) modules:
Generation of planning database: Statistics, maps, analytical tools and techniques. It is important that all stakeholders are not only consulted in this stage, but they also have to provide information in order to assess properly the current reality of the city.
Formulation of new goals, or updating of existing vision statement. This also includes determining vision-reality gap. It is necessary to conduct workshops where all stakeholders are well represented in order for the group to brainstorm exactly to what direction they want their city to go.
Formulation of spatial strategies, policies, and implementation tools. Participation is helpful in this stage in order to identify the area where urban expansion will be allowed.
Identification and prioritization of sectoral programs, projects and activities. Because of limited resources, stakeholders should be able to identify priority programs and projects.